Journal of Building Design and Environment (Print ISSN: 2811-0730  Online ISSN: 2811-0749) is a peer-reviewed open access journal published semi-annual by Omniscient Pte. Ltd. Journal of Building Design and Environment is an interdisciplinary, international journal. Taking ecological architectural design as its entry point, the journal combines the fields of architectural engineering, architectural aesthetics, built environment, construction engineering and management, sustainable development and urban planning, aiming to provide an open access academic platform for experts and scholars in the field, publish high-quality academic content and promote the exchange and development of the architectural design field.

  • Regional Difference of US Residential Building Energy Usage and Carbon Footprint: State-Level Analysis

    Jianli Chen, Biao Kuang

    United States (US) residential buildings demonstrate great decarbonization and energy-saving potential. However, research on the carbon footprint of residential buildings at the state level, especially consumption-based emissions, is limited. Therefore, this paper aims to quantify and compare the state-level carbon emissions and energy consumption of residential buildings in the US. Specifically, state carbon emission factors of electricity are estimated using area and population-based interpolations of eGRID regional carbon factors. Total carbon emissions and carbon intensity (e.g., carbon emission per household/ capita) of each state are then calculated based on the 2020 Residential Energy Consumption Survey dataset. Results of state carbon footprints demonstrate regional differences and spatial patterns: Texas and California stand out as the top energy consumers and contribute to the largest amount of carbon emissions, while Missouri has the highest carbon intensity on a household/ capita/ housing area basis. Also, west and east coastal states (e.g., California) exhibit lower carbon intensities than central states. Sensitivity analysis concludes that highly electrified states (e.g., Florida and Hawaii) are more sensitive to the carbon emission factor of electricity generation, with sensitivity degrees over 0.97. Furthermore, correlation analysis indicates that total carbon emission and its sensitivity to electricity carbon emission factor, as well as emission intensity positively correlate with state energy profile (e.g., gas ratio). Therefore, to achieve residential building decarbonization, besides energy-conservative measures, high gas-penetration states (e.g. Illinois) need to reduce direct fossil fuel use in residential energy services; states with high carbon emission factors and electrifications, e.g., Hawaii and Missouri, need to decarbonize electricity generation by adopting renewable energy as sources. The research findings contribute to understanding the regional variations in carbon footprints and energy usage of residential buildings, facilitating the development of tailored decarbonization and energy-saving measures for targeting states in the US.

  • The Case of Ownership Regularization Process in Villa 20, Informal Settlement in Argentina

    Tomas Reverter, Marcela Costello, Rocio Molinari, Lucia Llul

    The aim of this research is to contribute to the knowledge on the policy of regularisation of the urban informal habitat. The study focuses on analysing the approach to the process of land regularisation implemented in Villa 20, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Based on the knowledge provided by those technically responsible for the implementation and by the social organisations involved, the study shows the complexity of the land regularisation process and the fundamental role played by the participatory process in developing new instruments and reaching agreements aimed at gradually advancing towards title deeds. The multiplicity of factors that exist to achieve the goal of titling all dwellings face political, legal, institutional, technical and social barriers. Particular emphasis is placed on the lack of regulatory interventions aimed at adapting constructed buildings to current urban planning regulations, and on the pre-eminence given to the title deed as the only validated instrument to accredit security of tenure. The approach to property regularisation carried out in Villa 20 focuses on addressing issues not contemplated in the regulations, through gradual actions of urban and property regulation. The recognition of rights, security of tenure and integration into the city's urban infrastructure make it possible to find tools capable of overcoming socio-territorial obstacles. The results and discussions proposed by this research aim to contribute to the improvement of public management of the problems of access to home ownership for important sectors of the population.

  • A Case Study for Small-Scale Vertical Wind Turbine Integrated Building Energy Saving Potential

    Cihan Turhan, Yousif Abed Saleh Saleh

    Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is one type of wind machines, which is used nowadays to produce electricity. On the other hand, the VAWTs continue to evolve, driven by ongoing research, technological innovation, and the growing demand for clean and sustainable energy solutions. In terms of global sustainability, buildings prove to be major energy consumers. Even as technology advances to construct environmentally friendly buildings, various buildings are still contributors with high energy consumption. Novel systems are required to decrease energy consumption of today buildings. To this aim, this study offers an active solution by a renewable energy source in order to decrease energy consumption of an existing building. The novelty of the paper is designing three blades IceWind Turbine with arc angle of 112 degrees and an aspect ratio of 0.38 and integrating them to an existing building. A case building, occupied by a guard and used as a headquarters by soldiers on guard duty, in İstanbul Airport/Turkey is selected and 40 small-scale IceWind Turbines are integrated into the building via a dynamic building energy simulation tool and the results showed that total energy consumption of the case building is decreased by 9.3%. The outcome of this paper depicts that different design of the small-scale vertical wind turbines could be integrated to the building with higher energy saving potential.

  • Urban Squares Renewal in Promoting Sustainable Urban Prosperity and Low-carbon Transformation: Evidence from Comparisons between Piazzale Loreto and Wujiaochang

    Giuliana Quattrone, Le Chen

    European squares have represented the heritage of the European excellence and culture since ancient times. In 2026, Milan Piazzale Loreto will be transformed into one of the most important green squares in Milan. China’s urbanization is proceeding at an unprecedented speed, and Shanghai, in particular, has rich and valuable practices in urban renewal. However, there are few comparative studies on the renewal projects of large city squares in Milan and Shanghai. Therefore, this article explores the importance of renewal projects of large city squares by comparatively analyzing the similarities and differences between Milan Piazzale Loreto and Shanghai Wujiaochang. The evidence of the study suggests that the renewal projects of large city squares have great influence on promoting sustainable urban prosperity and low-carbon transformation.

  • Construction hoisted in buildings of resistant metal panels. Some constructive aspects of the Reverstop system

    Juan Pérez-Valcárcel , Manuel Muñoz-Vidal, Victor Hermo

    The risks involved in building at high levels have led to various proposals that allow building at ground level and then raising the built part to its final position. The Reverstop® system allows a simple and effective solution to this problem in light buildings. The different floors are built on the ground in reverse order, starting with the roof and they are raised with hydraulic jacks as they are being built. The main resistant element is the exterior wall, made up of aluminum or sheet steel panels. The construction of this type of structure requires solving two problems. The first is the correct design of the lifting elements and their adequate bracing, since it is the moment of greatest risk in the construction. The second is the design of the joint, it is an element of the greatest importance, since it allows the efforts to be transmitted between the floors. For this reason, it has been the subject of a special study in which different materials have been analyzed to select the most suitable one. The calculations that support the effectiveness of the solution and the experimental results obtained in the tests carried out within a research project are provided.

  • Optimization of Natural Lighting Level in Umah Pitu Ruang in Gayo Higland, Indonesia

    Laina Hilma Sari, Salsabilla, Muhammad Heru Arie Edytia

    Currently, traditional houses are starting to be difficult to find in Indonesia. One example is Umah Pitu Ruang (UPR) which is a traditional house located in the Gayo Highland, Aceh, Indonesia. In this study, two UPRs that have different orientations were evaluated. The purpose of this study was to find out whether the daylight received in the two UPRs complies with SNI 03-6575-2001 standards and to identify how the orientation and design of the two UPRs respond to the inclusion of natural lighting and optimize it. Data collection was carried out using quantitative methods obtained from observations, measurements, and simulations. This study found that the natural lighting that enters the two UPRs does not meet the SNI 03- 6575-2001 standards. The study shows that UPR with north and south orientation has a larger amount of illuminance and Daylight Factor (DF) compared with those facing east and west. However, both of the houses have a very small amount of illuminance in the bedroom, due to the very limited access from the bedroom to the outside. The study also indicates that people in the old times used their houses more for resting, while the rest of the activities were carried out outside. Therefore, the house does not comply with providing sufficient daylight during the daytime.

  • Digital Cadastral Land Information System for Enhanced Land Management in Pakistan

    Hassan Waqas, Iqra Munir, Waqar Ahmed, Shengjie Yue, B.G. Mousa

    To address the critical challenges of manual land records and paper maps in Pakistan and similar developing countries, this research introduces a novel web-based Digital Cadastral Land Information System (DCLIS). Leveraging advanced GIS capabilities, including map georeferencing, data visualization, and interactive queries, DCLIS provides a robust and accessible platform for efficient land data management. It overcomes the limitations of traditional systems by eliminating time-consuming procedures, minimizing data duplication, and ensuring data integrity through rigorous validation against field measurements (conducted on 20% of cadastral plots) and cross-checking with existing records. By empowering decision-makers in administration (improved land policy planning), land management (streamlined land ownership verification), and agriculture (precision farming, resource optimization), DCLIS facilitates efficient land resource utilization and promotes sustainable development practices. Moreover, its alignment with responsible land management and renewable energy integration contributes to the global drive towards environmental sustainability. This research bridges the digital divide in land record management and paves the way for more informed decision-making, ultimately promoting the development of sustainable land practices in Pakistan and beyond.

Honorary Editor-in-Chief

Jian Kang

Full Professor, The Bartlett, University College London, UK


Li-Mao Zhang

Full Professor, School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China

Samad Sepasgozar

Deputy Head of School Research, School of Built Environment, The University of New South Wales, Australia

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