Between the Electrodes of a Supercapacitor: An Update on Electrolytes

Rudolf Holze ( 1. State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, School of Energy Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China. 2. Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz, Germany. 3. Confucius Energy Storage Lab, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China. 4. Saint Petersburg State University, Institute of Chemistry, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia )


Performance, in particular power capabilities and stability of the supercapacitor critically depend on the electrolyte: the ionically conducting phase between the electrodes of a supercapacitor. This review provides an overview with particular attention to possible practical perspectives and promising developments. It addresses all studied or suggested electrolyte systems, mentions relevant properties and highlights details possibly important for practical use or posing likely problems.


Electrolytes; Electrolyte solutions; Solid electrolytes; Gel electrolytes; Ionic liquids; Deep eutectic solvents; Supercapacitors

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